What causes Heavy Menstrual Bleeding?
What causes Heavy Menstrual Bleeding?
What causes Heavy Menstrual Bleeding?

What causes Heavy Menstrual Bleeding?

What causes Heavy Menstrual Bleeding?
HMB-Cause-Uterine-Fibroids
Definition

Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors or growths of the uterus

Diagnosis

Uterine fibroids are usually diagnosed by ultrasound

Usual treatment

Treatment depends on the size and location of the fibroids and can be medical or surgical

HMB-Cause-Polyps
Definition

Polyps are benign growths on the lining of the uterus

Diagnosis

Polyps are usually diagnosed with ultrasound and hysteroscopy (looking into the uterus with a camera)

Usual treatment

Surgical

HMB-Cause-Adenomyosis
Definition

Adenomyosis occurs when the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) grows into the muscular wall of the uterus (the myometrium)

Diagnosed

Adenomyosis can be diagnosed by ultrasound or magnetic resonance

Usual treatment

Treatment is usually medical but some cases may require surgery

HMB-Cause-Hormonal-imbalance
Definition

Hormonal imbalance in women is a very common cause of heavy menstrual bleeding. If your ovaries don't release an egg (ovulation) during a menstrual cycle, your body doesn't produce the hormone progesterone, as it would during a ‘normal menstrual’ cycle . This leads to a hormone imbalance that can cause excessive buildup of the uterus lining and heavy periods

Diagnosis

Hormonal imbalance is predominantly diagnosed based on your clinical history and following exclusion of pre-existing uterine conditions associated with heavy menstrual bleeding

Usual treatment

Medical

HMB-Cause-Inherited-bleeding-disorders
Definition

Some inherited bleeding-related disorders — such as von Willebrand's disease, a condition caused by a deficient or impaired important blood-clotting factor, can also cause heavy menstrual bleeding. Women with this type of condition usually bleed excessively (e.g. from the nose or gums) and bruise easily

Diagnosis

Bleeding disorders are diagnosed based on personal and familiar medical history and blood tests

Usual treatment

Medical

HMB-Cause-other-medical-conditions
Definition

Heavy menstrual bleeding may also be associated with other medical conditions, including liver, kidney or thyroid disorders

Diagnosis

Kidney, liver and thyroid disorders are diagnosed based on clinical history and blood tests

Usual treatment

Treatment depends on the specific cause, but is usually medical

HMB-Cause-medication
Definition

Certain medications, including anti-inflammatories (such as aspirin), anticoagulants (such as warfarin or enoxaparin) or copper intrauterine devices (IUD) can contribute to heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding

Diagnosis

Heavy menstrual bleeding due to side effects of medication is diagnosed by the clinical history, after the exclusion of other causes

Usual treatment

Treated by stopping the drug or removing the copper IUD. When patients cannot stop the drug because they need it to treat other health problems, medical treatment can help overcome the heavy menstrual bleeding

HMB-Cause-cancer-of-the-uterus
Definition

The most common uterine cancers are; endometrial cancer (cancer on the lining of the uterus), which is more common in older women; and cervical cancer (cancer in the entrance to the uterus from the vagina), which is more common in younger women

Diagnosis

Uterine cancer is diagnosed using a combination of imaging techniques (like magnetic resonance) and tissue biopsy

Usual treatment

Treatment depends on the type and size of the tumor and is usually surgical. It often involves chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy

HMB-Cause-pregancy-related-Problem
Definition

Problems related to pregnancy might be associated with heavy bleeding, such as a miscarriage (when the pregnancy is interrupted at an early stage) or an ectopic pregnancy (when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus , usually in the fallopian tubes)

Diagnosis

A miscarriage is usually diagnosed with ultrasound and an ectopic pregnancy is diagnosed with a combination of ultrasound and blood tests

Usual treatment

Treatment is usually medical, but surgery may be needed in some cases

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